## Basic VAL function

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tsm
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### Basic VAL function

Hello!
If I'm not mistaken, the VAL function takes a string containing an expression and returns a number which represents the result of the expression.
I'm reading a Basic listing and I found some constructs that confuse me a little. Some examples:

LET d=VAL "256"
GO SUB VAL "900"
POKE VAL "23658",VAL "8"

Why not simply:

LET d=256
GO SUB 900
POKE 23658,8

Thank you!
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djnzx48
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Location: New Zealand

### Re: Basic VAL function

In this case VAL's probably being used to save memory. Numbers on the Spectrum are stored with a 5-byte numeric representation accompanying the textual representation, which speeds up the interpreter as it doesn't have to parse each number every time it reads it. The downside is this ends up wasting memory. Although VAL looks like it's making the program larger, it actually saves bytes in most cases: you have three extra bytes for the VAL and the two quote marks, but you no longer have to store the 5-byte number and so you save two bytes overall.

There are also some other tricks you can do, such as BIN for zero, SGN PI for one, and INT PI for 3, but VAL is more general and works in most situations.

Hope this helps!
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RMartins
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### Re: Basic VAL function

It's to save memory, since in BASIC representation, VAL "256", takes less bytes to represent the number 256 directly.

This saves memory, if you are really tight on it, but it's slower. So it's a compromise, that can be used on code that does not run often, or is just part of the loader for example.

The less bytes you consume in basic, the more bytes you can LOAD "" CODE, for assembly, for example.
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tsm
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### Re: Basic VAL function

Got it, thank you!
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R-Tape
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### Re: Basic VAL function

I think this is done more from habit than necessity. VAL and NOT PI are commonly used in short loaders for machine code games where the handful of bytes it saves doesn't make any difference, but then if you can save a few bytes then why not.

Actually how many bytes does NOT PI save?
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Ast A. Moore
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### Re: Basic VAL function

R-Tape wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 10:16 am
Actually how many bytes does NOT PI save?
Four.
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Every man should plant a tree, build a house, and write a ZX Spectrum game.

Author of A Yankee in Iraq, a 50 fps shoot-’em-up—the first game to utilize the floating bus on the +2A/+3,
and zasm Z80 Assembler syntax highlighter.

spectron
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### Re: Basic VAL function

The above is all relevant and correct but it was especially useful in Sinclair Basic on the unexpanded ZX81.

With only 1K for screen and program, every byte was even more important than on the Spectrum.

It may have been that it became habit and as mentioned, if you can save bytes then why not?
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Einar Saukas
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### Re: Basic VAL function

Ast A. Moore wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 10:48 am
R-Tape wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 10:16 am
Actually how many bytes does NOT PI save?
Four.
Actually five
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Ast A. Moore
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### Re: Basic VAL function

Einar Saukas wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 1:39 pm
Ast A. Moore wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 10:48 am
R-Tape wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 10:16 am
Actually how many bytes does NOT PI save?
Four.
Actually five
Mmm . . . A zero is one byte, plus 5 bytes of the BASIC’s number representation. That’s six bytes. NOT PI is two bytes. Six minus two is four.
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Every man should plant a tree, build a house, and write a ZX Spectrum game.

Author of A Yankee in Iraq, a 50 fps shoot-’em-up—the first game to utilize the floating bus on the +2A/+3,
and zasm Z80 Assembler syntax highlighter.

Einar Saukas
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Posts: 949
Joined: Wed Nov 15, 2017 2:48 pm

### Re: Basic VAL function

Ast A. Moore wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 2:07 pm
Einar Saukas wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 1:39 pm
Ast A. Moore wrote:
Thu May 24, 2018 10:48 am

Four.
Actually five
Mmm . . . A zero is one byte, plus 5 bytes of the BASIC’s number representation. That’s six bytes. NOT PI is two bytes. Six minus two is four.
Plus one byte for control code 14 that prefixes the number representation IIRC.
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